Mitochondria Wiki - What is the mitochondria?
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may, however, lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have also reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, mitos, "thread", and χονδρίον, chondrion, "granule" or "grain-like". Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm in diameter but vary considerably in size and structure. Unless specifically stained, they are not visible. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and cell death, as well as maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondrial biogenesis is in turn temporally coordinated with these cellular processes. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure and autism.The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely by organism, tissue, and cell type. For instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria, whereas liver cells can have more than 2000. The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome that shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes. Mitochondrial proteins (proteins transcribed from mitochondrial DNA) vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans, 615 distinct types of protein have been identified from cardiac mitochondria, whereas in rats, 940 proteins have been reported. The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated..
What does the word mitochondria mean? Find synonyms, antonyms and the meaning of the word mitochondria in our free online dictionary! Find words starting with mitochondria and anagrams of mitochondria.
Definitions of "mitochondria"
- Plural form of mitochondrion. noun
- A body of unknown significance, consisting of coiled filaments, found outside of the nucleus in the cytoplasm of certain cells. noun
The word "mitochondria" in example sentences
They focused on DNA housed within mitochondria, which is passed down only by the mother and can be linked to particular geographical regions.. [DNA analysis shows thoroughbreds have British as well as Arabian roots]
In some textbooks the Lamarckian acquisition of a double membrane of mitochondria is even presented as evidence for engulfment.. [A critique on the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of mitochondria]
The use of circular DNA in mitochondria has been taken as evidence, but there are also many organisms that have linear mitochondrial chromosomes with eukaryotic telomeres.. [A critique on the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of mitochondria]
In the current study, Davis and his colleagues analyzed DNA found in mitochondria, the cells energy-making machines ... [Archive 2007-01-01]
Researchers report for the first time that genetic variants in mitochondria -- energy-producing structures harboring DNA that are inherited only from the mother -- are directly linked to metabolic markers for type 2 diabetes.. [August 10th, 2007]
Getting proteins into mitochondria from the cytoplasm is a remarkable process, and just creating and then dealing with the signal sequences involved seems to be a bit much to ask of mutation and selection acting all on their own.. [College professor: "Flunk the IDiots"]
In a nutshell, the essence of the argument for the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria is that mitochondria look like they share a common ancestor with bacteria.. [2005 August - Telic Thoughts]
Energy production takes place within mitochondria, the power plant of the cell; the breakdown and recycling of waste takes place in the lysosome etc. The production of new products, proteins in the case of the cell, is carried out by ribosomes in a process resembling an assembly line.. [The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999 - Presentation Speech]
Searching for other ways to keep eggs young, researchers have looked to their energy source - special structures inside them called mitochondria.. [The Globe and Mail - Home RSS feed]
TUESDAY, Nov. 30 HealthDay News -- Autistic children are much more likely to have defects in a cellular structure called the mitochondria, which is responsible for producing the energy used by brain cells, preliminary research finds.. [BusinessWeek.com -- Top News]
And it is a neatly symmetrical fact that, just as the uphill chemistry of life is mostly taken care of by green bacteria thriving inside plant cells, so too the downhill chemistry of metabolism – the slow burning of sugars and other fuels to release energy in cells of both animals and plants – is the special expertise of another class of bacteria, once free-living but now reproducing themselves in larger cells, where they are known as mitochondria.. [THE GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH]
It's an event that doesn't involve the kind of middle-school science which I think is tragic, like memorizing words in boldface type, the definition of 'mitochondria.'. [Interactive game 'Vanished' doubles as an educational tool]
The most obvious example of symbiogenesis comes in the form of little lozenge-shaped structures called mitochondria.. [SuperCooperators]
Known as mitochondria, they are found inside every cell in varying numbers, depending upon how much energy that particular cell needs.. [The Chemistry of Calm]
In diabetic men there may also be more deletions of DNA in the tiny, energy-generating structures in the cells called mitochondria.. [A Baby at Last!]
Elevating glutathione levels and other substances that protect against free-radical damage in the mitochondria is the cornerstone of our quest to look and feel Forever Young.. [Forever Young]
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News about mitochondria
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