Porcelain Wiki - What is the porcelain?
Porcelain () is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C (2,200 and 2,600 °F). The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises mainly from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Though definitions vary, porcelain can be divided into three main categories: hard-paste, soft-paste and bone china. The category that an object belongs to depends on the composition of the paste used to make the body of the porcelain object and the firing conditions. Porcelain slowly evolved in China and was finally achieved (depending on the definition used) at some point about 2,000 to 1,200 years ago, then slowly spread to other East Asian countries, and finally Europe and the rest of the world. Its manufacturing process is more demanding than that for earthenware and stoneware, the two other main types of pottery, and it has usually been regarded as the most prestigious type of pottery for its delicacy, strength, and its white colour. It combines well with both glazes and paint, and can be modelled very well, allowing a huge range of decorative treatments in tablewares, vessels and figurines. It also has many uses in technology and industry. The European name, porcelain in English, come from the old Italian porcellana (cowrie shell) because of its resemblance to the surface of the shell. Porcelain is also referred to as china or fine china in some English-speaking countries, as it was first seen in imports from China. Properties associated with porcelain include low permeability and elasticity; considerable strength, hardness, toughness, whiteness, translucency and resonance; and a high resistance to chemical attack and thermal shock. Porcelain has been described as being "completely vitrified, hard, impermeable (even before glazing), white or artificially coloured, translucent (except when of considerable thickness), and resonant". However, the term "porcelain" lacks a universal definition and has "been applied in an unsystematic fashion to substances of diverse kinds which have only certain surface-qualities in common".Traditionally, East Asia only classifies pottery into low-fired wares (earthenware) and high-fired wares (often translated as porcelain), without the European concept of stoneware, which is high-fired but not generally white or translucent. Terms such as "proto-porcelain", "porcellaneous" or "near-porcelain" may be used in cases where the ceramic body approaches whiteness and translucency. A high proportion of modern porcelain is made of the variant bone china..
What does the word porcelain mean? Find synonyms, antonyms and the meaning of the word porcelain in our free online dictionary! Find words starting with porcelain and anagrams of porcelain.
Definitions of "porcelain"
- A hard, white, translucent ceramic made by firing a pure clay and then glazing it with variously colored fusible materials; china. noun
- An object made of this substance. noun
- A hard, white, translucent ceramic that is made by firing kaolin and other materials; china. noun
- Anything manufactured from this material.. noun
- Purslain. noun
- A fine translucent or semitransculent kind of earthenware, made first in China and Japan, but now also in Europe and America; -- called also China, or China ware. noun
- A ceramic ware having a translucent body, and when glazed (see biscuit, 3) a translucent glaze also. noun
- A hard-paste porcelain made in the early part of the nineteenth century. noun
- See Petit porcelain. noun
- A modern porcelain, of which the variety best known is unglazed works of art, such as statuettes and groups. Thorwaldsen's works, especially, have been copied in this ware. noun
- Less properly, when the decoration is produced by casting or pressing the whole surface before the color is applied. noun
- A hard-paste porcelain made from 1779 to the present day. The kaolin was obtained from St. Yrieix in the neighborhood, and the ware was especially brilliant and translucent as long as this alone was used. The modern porcelain includes much of the most important ceramic production of modern France. noun
- A hard-paste porcelain made from 1769, in consequence of the discovery of deposits of kaolin in France. This manufacture has reached greater merit of late years than before the revolution: in size and perfection the pieces surpass anything produced elsewhere, and the painting shows unparalleled skill and mastery of the material, whatever may be thought of its appropriateness and good taste as decoration. The mark under the kings of the old régime was always the royal cipher L L, front to front, crossing above and below, and within the space so inclosed a letter denoting the year of manufacture, a double alphabet beginning in 1778. AA, etc. Under the republic, the word Sèvres, and R. F. for République Francaise, were used; under the empire, M. Imple. de Sevres, sometimes with the imperial eagle, was used. The restored kings used a cipher of LL and one of CC; Louis Philippe, a cipher L. P., and often the name of the palace for which the ware was made. The 1848 republic restored the R. F.; and the second empire, a crowned N, with S for Sèvres, and the date, as 56. 57. But since about 1830 all pieces are marked before decorating with the letter S, and a date in green included in a cartouche, and, when the piece is sold undecorated, this mark is cut through by a touch to a grinding-wheel. noun
- Of the nature of or consisting of porcelain: as, porcelain adornments.
- An obsolete form of purslane. noun
- Carr porcelain, soft-paste porcelain and Parian ware produced by James Carr, of New York city, from about 1876 until 1885. noun
- Cartlidge porcelain, soft-paste porcelain and Parian, made by Charles Cartlidge, at Greenpoint, New York, from 1848 to 1856. Among his products were table-services, door-plates and hardware furnishings artistically painted, and Parian portraits, plaques, and busts of eminent men. noun
- Carved Belleek, a variety of Belleek porcelain made at Trenton, New Jersey, and carved in artistic low-relief designs while in the dry clay state, before burning. Vases and lamp-shades have been made in this style, the effect of the varying thickness of the walls, when artificial light is introduced, being that of a lithophane. noun
- Greenpoint porcelain, a name given to the hard-paste porcelain produced at the Union Porcelain Works, at Greenpoint, New York, from 1865 to the present time. The principal product has been hardware furnishings, but a large amount of decorative ware, in the form of vases, figures, groups, and busts, has also been produced there. noun
The word "porcelain" in example sentences
The term porcelain, which is applied to it on the continent of. [The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction Volume 19, No. 548, May 26, 1832]
You see that much of what we call porcelain is not porcelain at all when you judge it by this strict standard.. [The Story of Porcelain]
The bust is hand-painted, cold-cast in porcelain, measures approximately 6â€ high x 5â€ wide x 3â€ deep and is packaged in a 4-color box.. [DC Comics for February 2010 | Major Spoilers - Comic Book Reviews and News]
And if you think a military aircraft is an odd choice to render in porcelain, you should see some of the other World War One pottery memorabilia I ran across in my research, including machine guns, binoculars, airships, German bombs, artillery shells, aerial torpedoes and (my favorite) a lovely ceramic hand grenade.. [Things I Found in my Mother-in-Law's House: Souvenirs]
On yet another bookshelf, a collection of little boxes in porcelain, glass and wood -- each with its own story and some with treasures inside.. [frotter - French Word-A-Day]
This new product offers a gentler alternative to micro-dermabrasion and buffs away rough, dull cells using rice powder and calcified algae, leaving skin porcelain smooth and beautifully luminous.. [Leaf and Rusher Medical Skin Care Clinic – Unequalled Expertise in the MedSpa World]
In Charleston, South Carolina, Chinese export porcelain is one of the most commonly found ceramics at archeological sites, accounting for 24 percent of all ceramics uncovered.. [The Romance of China: Excursions to China in U.S. Culture: 1776-1876]
"Then an English king did help in English porcelain-making after all!" exclaimed Theo.. [The Story of Porcelain]
The scanty supply of glass and porcelain is arranged on the shelves in an orderly manner.. [The Girl from the Marsh Croft]
Chinese porcelain is found amid the ruins of Egypt.. [The True Inwardness of the Yellow Peril]
She brought out cups and saucers of thin Japanese porcelain, some sugar, a loaf and butter, a box of biscuits.. [Mary Gray]
The word porcelain is there said to be "derived from pour cent annes, French for a hundred years, it having been imagined that the materials were matured underground for that term of years.". [Literary Blunders; A chapter in the "History of Human Error"]
This, however, is not a Chinese word, but comes to us from the Portuguese, who first brought over these beautiful wares, and with whom the word porcelain means a cup.. [Our Own Third Reader: for the Use of Schools and Families]
Having glanced along the lines and seen that our first favourites had visited us this week, our tea seemed to bear with it an added fragrance; and this, although the walls around us were of logs, we had in fairy cups of ancient porcelain from the distant land of Scotland.. [Sketches and Tales Illustrative of Life in the Backwoods of New Brunswick, North America]
Today, in the English language, we call the porcelain people, the "CHINESE.". [ScienceBlogs Channel : Life Science]
[* An old (but not necessarily contrarian) potter could also confuse it with the word email, as in a type of ink used on porcelain, derived from the French word for "enamel".. [2008 April « Motivated Grammar]
Porcelain TranslatesPorcelain English to Turkish Translate
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